Tag Archives: Instructional Activities

Making an Original Newsreel: A Tech-Based Lesson Plan for Internship Placement

This semester in my EDTC 6431 Learning With Technology course I designed a lesson based off of a lesson about 1940s Wartime Newsreels that I had taught in my internship placement. My project expanded on ideas I had already explored with my class and sought ways to include technology in the already fun and effective lesson segment. 

My model lesson segment, which asked students to develop a 5-minute newsreel using the program Digital Storyteller http://www.digitalstoryteller.org/, was designed to get students to think about how the American people got their news during wartime, and to develop news segments on their very own. In the lesson segment I developed, each group was given a press release about a certain homefront subject and expected to piece together a short, 5-minute newsreel set on the U.S. Homefront during World War II, complete with a lead story, a secondary story, a human interest piece, and an advertisement.

In actuality, my students did this exact project but only had to act out their newsreels and bring in visuals to supplement them. Below is my project’s lesson segment, which borrows heavily from the lesson segment I did carry out with my students, but asks that students put together their very own newsreels using historical footage, images, and voiceovers on a digital film-making program (see above for link).

Take a look: 

WWII Homefront Newsreel Project Lesson Plans

Title

Lesson 1 (Monday): World War II Homefront and the Newsreel

Standard AP U.S. History College Board; Key Concept 7.2: Innovations in communications and technology contributed to the growth of mass culture, while significant changes occurred in internal and international migration patterns.

Key Concept 7.3: Participation in a series of global conflicts propelled the United States into a position of international power while renewing domestic debates over the nation’s proper role in the world.

II. World War II and its aftermath intensified ongoing debates about the nation’s role in the world and how best to achieve national security and pursue American interests.

Central Focus (CF) Students compile newsreels to learn about life on the World War II Homefront.
Learning Target

(LT)

Students can determine the key characteristics of a newsreel in order to help them brainstorm how to develop and make original newsreels of their own in small groups. Students write down LT.
Instruction

Inquiry

Preview

Review

Teacher opens class by reminding students that yesterday we spoke about Pearl Harbor and U.S. entry into WWII.

It’s 1942 now, and teacher asks how it is that U.S. citizens hear about the way. Teacher asks students to list the news sources available to people during wartime.

Teacher writes student ideas on the board.

Teacher is sure to address the possible misconception that people had TV’s in this time. It wasn’t until after the war that they came out. There were, however, movies and movie theaters.

Teacher circles the word “newsreel” on the board. Teacher explains that movie-goers would go to the movies for a nickel or a dime, and before a movie began they would see the news through a newsreel.

Teacher briefly explains the history of the newsreel.

Students call out different news sources.
Practice Activity or

Support

Teacher welcomes students to the “movies,” it’s 1942 and Hitler has just invaded the Soviet Union. Sit back, relax, and watch what our newsreel has to say about this.

Teacher asks that as students watch they take notes about what they notice about the newsreel. What are its characteristics? What stories does it tell? Its style? Tone?

Teacher plays 10-minute newsreel.

Students take notes on the film reel.
Informal Assessment     Teacher asks students to talk to their table partner about different things they noticed from the newsreel.

Teacher writes “Characteristics of a newsreel” on the board.

Teacher asks students to share what they noticed from the newsreel. Teacher writes down the characteristics students determine.

Teacher points out that there was clearly a “lead story” (Germany invading the Soviet Union), a “secondary story” (U.S. military industrial efforts to help Russia), a “human interest story” (at home, there is a nation-wide debutant contest underway), and an “advertisement” (for war bonds).

Teacher instructs that students write lead story, secondary story, human interest story, and advertisement in their notes.

Students talk to their table partner about characteristics of the newsreel.

Students share their ideas with the class.

Students write “lead story, secondary story, human interest story, and advertisement” in their notes.

Practice Activity or

Support

Teacher explains that students will have the opportunity to create their own newsreels using either raw images and footage and voice-overs with a digital program called Digital Storyteller from Primary Access.

Teacher assigns students into four-person groups and hands them one of seven press releases from the Teacher’s Curriculum Institute World War II material guides on one of the following seven topics: Women, Government, GIs, Children, Consumerism, African Americans, Mexican Americans.

Students sit with their assigned group members.
Informal Assessment Teacher tells students to read over the press release together and brainstorm to decide on the topics of their lead story, secondary story, human interest piece, and advertisement.

Teacher tells students to decide who will write each story (about 1-1.5 minutes a piece).

For homework, students will need to write these stories.

Students read over press release together and determine what will be their lead story, secondary story, human interest piece, and advertisement.

Students self-assign in groups which story they will write.

For groups with three or five members, students will be responsible for allocating four stories and five minutes amongst that amount of students.

Closure Assessment of Student Voice Students hand in an Exit Ticket detailing the contents of each story for their newsreel. Students hand in Exit Ticket as they leave the classroom.

 

Title

Lesson 2 (Tuesday): Researching Stories and Visuals for Newsreels (in computer lab)

Standard AP U.S. History College Board; Key Concept 7.2: Innovations in communications and technology contributed to the growth of mass culture, while significant changes occurred in internal and international migration patterns.

Key Concept 7.3: Participation in a series of global conflicts propelled the United States into a position of international power while renewing domestic debates over the nation’s proper role in the world.

II. World War II and its aftermath intensified ongoing debates about the nation’s role in the world and how best to achieve national security and pursue American interests.

Central Focus (CF) Students compile newsreels to learn about life on the World War II Homefront.
Learning Target

(LT)

Students can use the program Digital Storyteller and research online databases for historical information and visual and video footage for their newsreels. Students write down LT.
Instruction

Inquiry

Preview

Review

Teacher tells students to find a computer next to their group members and share with their group members the stories they wrote for last night’s homework.

Teacher passes out newsreel project rubric, so students understand the expectations.

Students review their homework, and share with their partners the stories they wrote for the newsreel.

Students read the project rubric.

Practice Activity

Support

Teacher asks all students to visit Digital Storyteller online and scaffolds their online learning by walking them through the steps of the program.

Teacher introduces students to the websites main features, and shows example work from past students who used this program.

In order to use the visual and online features, students will now have the time to work together to research visual aids or do more research to create their own. Teacher warns that while students will have one more work-day in class, students should communicate and work together through Digital Storyteller at home and Google Docs.

Teacher posts a list of historical databases in which students should begin their research on the school’s educational interface: Schoology. Teacher instructs that students begin their research with these online databases, which we have worked with before together in class.  

Students follow teacher’s step-by-step introduction to the program.

Students consult with online databases on Schoology.  

Informal Assessment Teacher tells students to begin playing with the program and looking for visuals. In order to check in, teacher conferences with each group to give them additional direction. Students research and compile footage or conference with the teacher.
Closure Assessment of Student Voice Exit Ticket: Students must decide in moving forward who will be responsible for visuals (2 students), voice-over (1 student), and editing (1 student), and provide a schedule for project completion. They have three more days to finish their project. Digital Storyteller is accessible on any computer, so students can work at these from home or after school. Students hand in Exit Ticket as they leave the classroom.
Students who find one group member is not pulling their weight must speak directly with the teacher over the next few work days to work something out accordingly.Teacher may decide that students do not have to do an advertisement, for instance, or that their video can be up to thirty seconds shorter.  

 

Title

Lesson 3 (Friday): Newsreel Presentations!

Standard AP U.S. History College Board; Key Concept 7.2: Innovations in communications and technology contributed to the growth of mass culture, while significant changes occurred in internal and international migration patterns.

Key Concept 7.3: Participation in a series of global conflicts propelled the United States into a position of international power while renewing domestic debates over the nation’s proper role in the world.

II. World War II and its aftermath intensified ongoing debates about the nation’s role in the world and how best to achieve national security and pursue American interests.

Central Focus (CF) Students compile newsreels to learn about life on the World War II Homefront.
Learning Target

(LT)

Students present their newsreels and reflect on the significance of the topics of each newsreel’s impact on the war effort and life on the U.S. home front. Students write down LT.
Instruction

Inquiry

Preview

Review

Teacher invites students to the “movie theater,” as in the days in the 1930s and 40s when moviegoers went to see a film and viewed a series of newsreels before the feature film. Before our feature film, she reminds them, we have a lot to hear about the state of our country at war, and the happenings here and abroad!

Teacher explains that she will call each group individually to load their newsreel.

Teacher passes out a note-taking handout. Teacher explains that as the audience watches the newsreel, they must write down five important things they learn. After each 5-minute newsreel, teacher will give students 1-2 minutes to write a reflection on the significance of the topic of the newsreel and its impact on the war effort and life on the U.S. homefront on their handout.

Informal Assessment Teacher calls up a group to present their newsreel.
Teacher instructs that students take a moment to write a reflection on the significance of what they have just seen on their handouts.(Repeat 7 times)
Students present their digital newsreels.

Students in the audience take notes on five important things.

Students take 1-2 minutes to reflect on the significance of the topics of the newsreel and its impact on the U.S. home front.

Informal Assessment Teacher asks students to talk to their table partner about themes they thought about as they saw these newsreels; what types of stories did we hear? What do they tell us about the war effort and life at home?

Teacher asks students to share their ideas.

Teacher tells students that next week we will be getting into the Cold War.

Teacher asks students how does WWII transform the U.S. in their view? Where is the U.S. once the Cold War begins?

Students talk to table partner about what themes they noticed in the newsreels.

Students share their ideas with the class.

Students share their ideas with the class.

Closure Assessment of Student Voice Teacher tells students to turn in their notes and reflections before they leave class. Students turn in their presentation note handouts for feedback.
Formal

Assessment or Postassessment

(Sequence end)

Students will be graded according to the following rubric:

-Newsreel includes a lead story, a secondary story, a human interest piece, and an advertisement (10 points)

-Stories are historically accurate (10 points)

-Visuals are historically relevant, interesting, and engaging (10 points)

-Voice-over sounds well-rehearsed and uses an appropriate tone (10 points)

-Editing is well-done (few awkward pauses, jumps, or blank screens) (10 points)

-Newsreel is entertaining, engaging, and fun (10 points)

-Newsreel is about 5-minutes long (10 points)

Total: 70 points.

Students will submit their newsreels to Lehigh’s Reel American History Project.

Artifacts from the actual lesson: 

Example Press Release (on Government):

IMAG1421_1IMAG1422_1

Example Student Group Script (with lead story, secondary story, human interest piece, and advertisement):

IMAG1425_1IMAG1426_1

Example Note-Taking Handout frontside (for day of presentations):

IMAG1427_1

Example Rubric:

IMAG1423_1

Lesson Segment Reflection: 

As said, while I did not have the opportunity to teach this exact tech-based lesson segment, I was able to teach it without the Digital Storytelling program, having the students act out their newsreels for the rest of the class. Instead of creating their own short films, students wrote scripts and provided their own visuals (projecting them as a backdrop) and read out their newsreel stories in a performance presentation for their peers.

My mentor teacher and I did use the same preparation resources I described in this lesson segment, however, like the model press releases (see above for the press release on Government). We also showed students example newsreels and as a class named the characteristics of an effective newsreel. We pointed out to students that each newsreel had a lead story, a secondary story, a human interest piece, and an advertisement — writing each of these on the board and describing their characteristics.

I gave students a half workday in class to read their press releases together and come up with and assign their stories. They also collaborated about visuals, and even music, in class. At home, they all either wrote their own part of the script or added to a group Google Document and turned in their entire script at the end of their presentation (see above for the model script). As students performed their newsreels, I took notes on each of their stories and any particularly interesting things that they did with their performance on the rubric in front of me. I waited until I read their scripts to grade how historically accurate they were (see above for example rubric).

The students had a really great time with this project. Some got very into the voiceovers, copying the intonation of a newsreel commentator closely. Some even dressed up! For one of the newsreels that focused on stories about GIs (based off of the GI press release), one student came dressed in uniform, helmet and all! This same group surprised us when as they advertised the reliable Zippo, they pulled it out for us! The group who presented their newsreel on stories about the Government (script above) accompanied their presentation not only with several visuals but with soft WWII-era music playing in the background as they spoke. It really was a lot of fun!

I knew that the students really learned a lot from conducting and watching those presentations because when I gave the students three questions for a quiz review — with one asking about life on the homefront during WWII — the students insisted we skip that one so we could focus more on the happenings of the war abroad. When I asked if they really felt that comfortable with the material, they all insisted the newsreels were a great help! Overall, they did quite well with all the questions on the quiz about the WWII homefront, which suggests they were playing very close attention during the presentations (thanks, in part, to their Newsreel Notes Handout, see above).

Lesson Segment Revision: 

Overall, students performed very strongly on this presentation. The majority of the groups received an 18 or 19 out of 20 points on their in-person newsreel presentations. While the presentations were a lot of fun, I think the lesson could have only been supplemented and augmented by the use of technology to tell their stories. In the lesson I have designed for this EDTC 6431 Individual Project, students would still have the opportunity to “perform” their stories for their classmates, but would do so through a different medium, film, using the Digital Storyteller program. Using this program would give students the opportunity to learn about film-making — compiling, editing, special features, etc… — in the process.

Importantly, adding the more intentional use of technology in this project would serve to address ISTE 1 Standard, which requires that students demonstrate creative thinking, construct knowledge, and develop innovative products and processes using technology. As the lesson stands now, it addresses the Key Concepts 7.2 and 7.3 of the AP College Board curriculum, but using technology in this lesson — and comparing an understanding about innovations in communication and technology in our past and present — would undoubtedly serve to make these lessons more valuable, and its fruits long-lasting. Undoubtedly, however, to use the technology well, the students would need at least a week to work on their projects, which would make the project much bigger (a 70-point project rather than the 20-point project it is now).

Students could even revisit these projects or submit them to Lehigh’s Reel American History Project, which seeks to collect and show student work nationwide: http://digital.lib.lehigh.edu/trial/reels/about/. Partaking in a collaborative project like this would have also been memorable for the students — and a bit of a motivator to make their newsreels, and make them well!

Good teachers know teaching and lesson development is an iterative process. While the lesson works well as it stands now, it only stands to be improved by the incorporation of technology, allowing students to not only act out newsreels but really create newsreels of their own. I’ll definitely work more with this idea in the coming year!

Advertisements

Pairing Theory and Practice: Course and Internship Reflection for EDU 6136 Content Methods

In EDU6136 Content Methods this quarter, I have had the great privilege of learning about the pedagogical theories in the educational field that address Program Standard 4, Content Knowledge. The Content Knowledge standard requires that teachers use their understanding of not only their content area and its learning objectives or standards, but also know how best to teach the content to achieve those standards. This requires that teachers learn about and practice the pedagogical processes and resources available to truly impact student learning. This course has exposed me to a wide range of pedagogical approaches, but my internship placement has allowed me to actually apply several of these theories – from assessing prior knowledge, scaffolding, and deepening understanding – to practice.

While I had read Dochy et al. (1999), and believed I fully understood the importance of assessing students’ prior knowledge, I learned quickly in my internship that I wasn’t doing enough to apply this in practice. I was teaching my AP U.S. History students about Eugene V. Debs and the American Socialist Party, and had wrongly assumed we could dig right into a speech of his entitled “Winning the World” about how socialism would ultimately overtake capitalism. Luckily, I did begin the lesson with a KWL chart and quickly picked up on my students’ misguided impressions of the political theory of socialism – I saw my students had conflated the definition of socialism with that of communism. I ditched the planned lesson in order to work with students on coming up with a working definition of socialism. Had I assessed prior learning about the subject earlier, I would certainly have planned a Concept Instruction lesson to help students grapple with the theory on their own with prepared resources. I certainly learned my lesson, and learned that the next time I read about something related to pedagogical practice, I better take note and apply it in my internship!

I was reminded of this again when I read about scaffolding in this course. De Pol et al (2010), for instance, summarize decades’ worth of research on scaffolding in saying, “In general, scaffolding is construed as support given by a teacher to a student when performing a task that the student might otherwise not be able to accomplish” (p. 274). As I thought about scaffolding, I wondered how often I actually gave students too much support, and failed to really challenge them within Vygotsky’s Zone of Proximal Development (De Pol, 272). I thought, for instance, how in my AP U.S. History class we give the students time to grapple with review questions before taking a weekly quiz on the contents of the textbook chapter they have just read, and how I often answer several questions without challenging my students to think critically on their own first. De Pol (2012) and others works reminded me that teachers are really just there to facilitate learning, not to give the answers away. With time, and trying to more intentionally apply theory to my practice in my internship placement, I have begun to challenge my students to look in the text themselves or ask each other before coming to me. What a difference that has already made!

Later, as I read the works of Caram and Davis (2005), Goldsmith (2013), and Roberts and Billings (2009) about the importance of asking high quality questions to deepen student understanding, and welcoming questions, conversation, and debate to encourage student engagement, I already knew a little better. My mentor teacher had stressed to me the importance of question asking from day one. She had modeled for me the turn-and-talk in pairs technique, which allows students to bounce thoughts about a given question off of each other before offering them up to the class. I saw how this technique facilitated more open and thoughtful conversation. When I read of this very technique called “Think, Pair, Share” in Goldsmith’s (2013, p.50) research, I recognized it immediately. Additionally when I read Roberts and Billings (2009) work on Socratic seminars and stimulating “conversations that teach” (p.83), I found again that I knew this practice well. In my AP U.S. History course we have hosted seminar discussions on topics from the Declaration of Independence to what it is that Jacob Riis’s work and The Gangs of New York can reveal about the Gilded Age. Currently, I am planning a Socratic Seminar for my students (see below for directions) in which they need to come in as Civil Rights Movement activists and stay in character for the whole of the open discussion – presenting and defending their position on the proper course of the movement.

Scan 18.jpeg

It is amazing how theory informs practice (and vice versa)! As I moved forward in the course, I recognized more and more of the strategies we studied, and more intentionally applied them in my internship classrooms. My Content Knowledge skills improved signficiantly as I learned and then practiced how best to teach the information in my classroom. By the time we got to talk about feedback at the end of the semester, for instance, I had already given my students in my AP Language and Composition class substantive comments on creative performance pieces they had presented for the entire class. I typed 1/3-page responses to each and every one of the students about their piece, encouraging them and challenging them with additional questions to grapple with. It took a very, very long time, but I was thrilled I had done it, and had again lined educational theory about skillful feedback to practice.

In going forward, I know I will more intentionally recognize and apply these content method techniques in my internship classrooms in order to further impact student learning. As they say, we learn as we go. In this program I have realized that I learn through both theory and practice, and this course has given me the opportunity to think critically about how best to pair the two.

 

References:

Billings, L. & Roberts, T. (2009). Speak up and listen. Kappan Magazine, October 2009 ed., pp. 81-85.

Caram, C & Davis, P. (2005). Inviting student engagement with questioning. Kappa Delti Pi Record, Fall 2005 ed., 19-23.

De Pol, J., Volman, M., and Beishusen, J. (2010). Scaffolding in teacher-student interaction: A decade of research. Educational Psychology Review. 22, pp. 271-296. DOI 10.1007/x10648-101-9127-6.

Dochy, Filip, et al. (1999). The relation between assessment practices and outcomes of studies: The case of research on prior knowledge. Review of Educational Research, Summer 1999, Vol. 69, No. 2, pp. 145-186.

Goldsmith, W. (2013). Enhancing classroom conversation for all students. Kappan Magazine, April 2013 ed., pp. 48-52.

 

History Matters: Using Rich Media to Conduct Historical Research

This week began by investigating the digital tools and resources available to help students of history use critical thinking skills to conduct and manage their own research.

I began, then, by referring to EdTechTeacher: Best History Websites at http://besthistorysites.net/research/, which offers educators tools for History Research and Writing Guides, Internet Search Tools, Primary Source Collections and Activities, History Databases, Museums Online, and Website Evaluation Materials. Dr. Bates warns teachers must be sure not “overload” students, or present them “with too much information at too complex a level or too quickly for them to properly absorb it” (section 6.6.3), so I evaluated each tool individually to better ascertain how I would directly teach its use.

As I dug into each section, I was particularly struck by The Center for History and New Media (CHNM), which seeks to produce historical works in new media forms to test their effectiveness in the classroom: http://historymatters.gmu.edu/. I have already used their History Matters website a few times in my own classroom; its Many Pasts section has primary documents in text, image, and audio that importantly trace the stories of ordinary Americans. The CHNM also features a Research and Tools section, which details how to use Zotero, a free Firefox extension used for managing and citing research sources. Additionally it offers a Making Sense of Evidence section, which provides students with strategies for analyzing online primary documents, and contains interactive exercises designed to guide the use of traditional and online sources. Lastly, CHNM’s Reference Desk offers students information on how best to evaluate websites and understand copyright and fair use.

CHNM’s History Matters website what Dr. Bates would define as a “rich media source,” offering students many ways to interact with its tools inside and outside of the classroom. As Bates warns, however “rich media may contain a great deal of information compressed into a very short time period and its value will depend to a large extent on the learner’s level of preparation for interpreting it,” (section 6.3.3.) so direct instruction in how to use each feature of this informative and varied website would be absolutely essential to explore its full and rich potential.

Another integral part of using rich media is educating students on how to do so responsibly. Students must be able to make informed decisions on the appropriate use of digital resources, and while History Matters offers some great suggestions on the matter in their Making Sense of Evidence and Reference Desk sections, students should know a thing or two about digital citizenship before even embarking upon such complex digital research.

I found a website called Digital Citizenship, which offers a “Nine Elements Section” that provides students with a list of commandments, if you will, that are easy to remember and will help guide students in their individual digital research projects http://www.digitalcitizenship.net/Nine_Elements.html. These nine elements remind students what it is to be a critically thinking historian who uses their digital resources carefully and responsibly. Being responsible digital citizens, after all, allows students to make full educational use of the rich media at their fingertips.

References

Bates, A.W. (n.d.). Fundamental change in education. In Teaching in a digital age (6). Retrieved from http://opentextbc.ca/teachinginadigitalage/part/chapter-1fundamental-change-education/.

The Meeting of the (Founding Fathers’) Minds: A Performance Assessment and Rubric

In my AP U.S. History course, students are now learning about the American Revolution, and the early days of the republic. I think a good assessment for a unit such as this would be a performance assessment, a Meeting of the Minds, if you will, in which the students act as Founding Fathers and discuss the primary issues and compromises they must face as they begin about creating a new republic.

The Meeting of the Minds prompt will look as follows:

Mr. _________ ___________ (I will assign each student a different Founding Father and write their name here),

You have been formally invited to to participate in our great nation’s Constitutional Convention here in Philadelphia in this year of our Lord, 1787. We have many things to discuss regarding the drafting of a viable and long-lasting Constitution. I ask you be prepared to discuss your opinions on several matters including the Articles of Confederation, state versus federal rights, the duties of our federal government, the balance of federal power, legislative representation, and the trans-Atlantic slave trade.

 I look forward to your participation in this momentous meeting.

APUSH students: The person to whom this letter is addressed is your assigned character. You will research his life and political philosophy, and know very well where he stands on each of the issues mentioned above.

You will also be required to research the Constitutional Convention itself and determine what role your character had in the meeting (did he lead it? Did he mobilize others? Did he express his state’s concerns or address federal concerns? Who was he in agreement with?), and use this knowledge to conduct yourself in a historically accurate manner in our 2015 Meeting of the (Founding Fathers’) Minds.

There will be up to 10 points of extra credit for historically accurate costumes. I will be happy to connect you with the theater’s costume department if this is of interest.

The rubric is as follows:

In Character 10

Student knows about their character’s life and theories and responds to the issues addressed at the Convention accurately.

Student never falls out of character.

8

Student knows some about their character’s life and theories and responds to the issues addressed at the Convention mostly accurately.

Student falls out of character only a few times.

6

Student knows some about their character’s life and theories and how they would respond to the issues addressed at the Convention.

Student falls out of character every so often.

4

Student is not dressed as their character.

Student knows only a little about their character’s life and theories and how they would respond to the issues addressed at the Convention.

Student falls in and out of character throughout.

2

Student is not dressed as their character.

Student knows little to nothing about their character’s life and theories and how they would respond to the issues addressed at the Convention.

Student is never in character.

 

Participation

 

 

 

 

 

 

10

Student is constantly engaged in the debate and conversation.

Student offers several new and thoughtful ideas and questions to the floor.

8

Student mostly engaged in the debate and conversation.

Student offers some new and thoughtful ideas and questions to the floor.

6

Student is somewhat engaged in debate and conversation.

Student offers a few new and thoughtful ideas and questions to the floor.

4

Student is hardly engaged in debate and conversation.

Student offers very few new and thoughtful and ideas to the floor.

 

 

2

Student is not at all engaged in debate and conversation.

Students offers no new or thoughtful and ideas to the floor.

Historically Accurate 10

Student acts in character’s role at the Convention accurately.

Ideas and language used are historically accurate and well-researched.

8

Student acts in character’s role at the Convention mostly accurately.

Ideas and language used are mostly historically accurate and well-researched.

6

Student acts in character’s role at the Convention somewhat accurately.

Ideas and language used are somewhat historically accurate and well-researched.

4

Student acts in character’s role at the Convention with little accuracy.

Ideas and language used are not very historically accurate or well-researched.

2

Student acts in character’s role at the Convention inaccurately.

Ideas and language used are not at all historically accurate or well-researched.

Good Citizen 10

Student is always respectful of his or her peers.

Student inspires and allows others in the class to respond and engage respectfully as well.

8

Student is mostly respectful of his or her peers.

Student mostly inspires and allows others in the class to respond and engage respectfully as well.

6

Student is mostly respectful of his or her peers.

Student sometimes pushes and allows others in the class to respond and engage respectfully as well.

4

Student is somewhat respectful of his or her peers.

Student hardly pushes and allows others in the class to respond and engage respectfully as well.

2

Student is not respectful of his or her peers.

Student does not push or allow others in the class to respond and engage respectfully as well.

Total                                  /40

Practice Makes Perfect: Course Reflection on Lesson Planning Theory and Practice in General Inquiry, Teaching, and Assessment

Program standard number 4, Content Knowledge, sets the expectation that we teachers in training know how to design and carry out effective curricula and instruction in our preferred content areas. Such lesson plans must also address some or many content-area state or national standards, so they are coherent and sequential. In order to design appropriate units and lessons, teachers must learn how to plan in organized and methodological ways. Our pedagogical creativity, of course, must also surface out of these well-organized lesson plans, appearing out of our constructivist and innovative ideas for lesson instruction.

All quarter long in our General Inquiry, Teaching, and Assessment (EDU60162) class, we have been working with program standard 4 as a means to learn about the coherent instruction design described above (see also Element 4.4). We began our classroom discussion by learning about the all-important rule of lesson sequencing. Rosenshine (2012) and McTighe and Wiggins (2004) showed us that we must design our units and lessons backwards, thinking first about the Central Focus (CF) of a given unit and the Learning Target (LT) of each lesson. We learned, however, that when developing these central foci we need to think critically about aligning our lessons with state standards and objectives, which ensure that units are cohesive and lessons learned and skills obtained are roughly the same throughout the country (though, as we discussed in class, these lessons and skills will inevitably differ because of individual teacher’s personal touches and flair).

Next, Marzano (2007), and McTighe and Wiggins (2005) again, taught our class that after coming up with the central investigative idea for our lesson, we must design the formal and informal assessments we as instructors will use to ensure our students understand each element of the lesson’s LT. We importantly learned that it is essential to include at least two informal assessments each lesson (McTighe and Wiggins). Only then can we as instructors begin to plan our instructional activities that support the lesson’s LT, unit’s CF, and lesson’s assessments. Contrary to popular belief, then, instructional activity planning really comes last in the lesson planning process. All along the way, we were asked to research lesson plans online in our preferred content area and assess their central foci, assessments, and learning activities, which allowed us the fun opportunity to evaluate and critique without too much responsibility of our own.

This changed, however, once we were asked to write an Evaluation of Content Standards Paper. For this paper, we were responsible for becoming familiar with, analyzing, and writing about the state standards for our particular endorsement area. I personally came to the conclusion that the beauty of content standards is actually in their broadness and the liberty we have as teachers to use them as guiding principles rather than strict and rigid guidelines. Our responsibilities increased still when after a survey of effective instructional practices – which include engaging students in pre-existing knowledge and preconceptions, instructing them in both factual and conceptual frameworks, and leading students through metacognitive practices to check their own learning (reiteration, reiteration, reiteration isn’t a bad idea either!) (National Research Council, 2011) – we were asked to design our own lesson plan using all we had learned thus far. All that analysis we had done of other’s lesson plans online was put to good use, and we thought critically about what worked and didn’t in those plans in order to develop our own.

We focused intensively on these original lesson plans for the rest of the semester, incorporating academic language, student voice, and support for exceptional learners as we went. We used the lessons of the course to organize a clearly structured lesson plan, in which progression of activities was even and time appropriate (see Program Standard 4.4 Example). In class, we enjoyed the opportunity to peer edit each other’s lesson plans, and learned about how collaboration influences lesson design for the good. What we ultimately turned in as our final End-of-Quarter Lesson Plan was a well-polished, thoughtful lesson plan and analysis that addressed a state standard, CF, and LT and integrated formal and informal assessment, supportive learning activities, and opportunities for student voice and differentiated learners.

In sum, we learned a great deal this summer quarter about the theory of effective instructional planning, and by the end of the course got to use some of that knowledge to develop our very own lesson plan. Doing so allowed us to “use content area knowledge, learning standards, appropriate pedagogy and resources to design and deliver curricula and instruction” (Program Standard 4). The implications of this for student learning are profound. If teachers plan their lessons intentionally, carefully, and creatively, students are in for a world of deliberate discovery that will allow for structured, clear, and fun learning activities with explicit functions. If we employ student voice effectively, asking students to think metacognitively about their own learning, and run with their feedback as we should, students will most certainly feel an increased sense of ownership and agency in their own learning. Their voice will be directly incorporated into their curricula, and isn’t that exactly what students have long been asking for?

 As said, our cohort knows a great deal now about lesson planning theory and has practiced it through the development of one in-depth lesson plan. Now we must continue. We must plan for lesson segments, units, and year-long curricula! That is what is in store for us, after all. Now we have the tools to begin such further planning. The hope, of course, is that with enough practice this type of curriculum planning will become second nature and no longer will we have to take half of a quarter to design just one lesson plan. Instead, we’ll be able to plan a whole unit, heck maybe even a year-long curriculum in that same amount of time! I’m looking forward to planning more.

References:

Marzano, R. J. (2007). The art and science of teaching: A comprehensive framework for effective instruction. Alexandria, Virginia: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

McTighe, J. & Wiggins, G. (2004). Understanding by design. Alexandria, Virginia: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

National Research Council (2011). How people learn: Bridging research and practice. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Rosenshine, B. (2012). Principles of instruction: Research-based strategies that all teachers should know. In The Education Digest. Ann Arbor, MI: Prakken Publications.